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FIRST HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY   365

industrially after the fashion of the Middle Ages. Hence their
aim in education was not individualistic but socialistic. Education
for them was " the sum total of the efforts employed to adapt
each new generation to the social order to which it is summoned
by the progress of humanity" : that is, it was education in
preparation for an ideal society. In keeping with this, they laid
emphasis, not on the primitive feelings and impulses that charac-
terize the individual as an individual, but on the sentiments of
sympathy which connect him with his fellows. Moral education,
the education of the heart, was therefore the crown of education
in their system. In spite of their vagueness, the St. Simonian
doctrines had a considerable effect on educational opinion. The
Christian element in them became the ground for demanding
educational enlightenment for all classes, and the industrial
interest served to stimulate the desire for specialized training for
vocation.

The most valuable application of the St. Simonian faith to
education was that made by Edouard Seguin (1812-1880). Seguin
has been called " The Apostle of the Idiot," because of the
splendid pioneer work he did in the training of idiots : but the
principles he put into operation in this extreme case, as he himself
believed and as Dr. Montessori has recently demonstrated, had
reference to all education. St. Simon's own philosophy of life
was a species of sensationalism, but by the time that Seguin came
under its influence, it had been profoundly modified in the thought
of his disciples by union with German idealism. Seguin was still
sensationalist enough to agree with Rousseau (whom he regarded
as the greatest of all educational thinkers) that sensory and motor
training is fundamentally important in early education, more es-
pecially in an education that takes proper account of individuality.
But he saw more clearly than Rousseau—here approximating
to Froebel, with whom he had many affinities—that muscles and
senses are always parts of the whole personality. Man, for him,
is a living trinity, conscious of himself both as a unit and as a
threefold being who feels, understands, and wills at every moment
of his existence. But though the whole man is present in every
phase, the educator can only deal with one of them at a time as
they appear in the sequence of growth. " From the feeling of pres-
sure in the tactile organs which taught prehensiori up to our senti-
ment of duty towards our pupils which taught them affection,0 he